Policy Networks and Industrial Revolution4.0: Paradigm Shift from Government to Governance
Since first enacted by the Indonesian government, industrial revolution 4.0. has beenidentical with technological revolution. This revolution is linked with several aspectsof popular technological development such as internet of things, artificial intelligence,human–machine interface, robotic technology as well as 3D printing. However, themost important factor beyond technology is a paradigm change. This aspect is missingin current issue. A new form of governing is required for the government’ readinessto enter into a new industrial revolution. Thus, change is required and itscharacterized by a paradigm shift from government to governance, from single actorsto multiple actors. The question is what form of governance, why and how it works?To fill in the gaps, policy networks is essential for building a new form of governancein the industrial revolution era. It is because in the reform era, there is no single anddominant actor who independently manage policy process. In fact, with very limitedresources, actors and institutions are interdependent. Networking across divers actorseither local, national or even international can improve the quality of public policymaking process as well as implementation process.